In-Text CitationsAn in-text citation is a brief mention within the body of your paper that leads the reader to the complete information about that reference. It usually appears at the end of a sentence. In-text citations include the author of the source (often in a signal phrase), the year of publication, and if it is a direct quote, the page number in parentheses.
ExamplesYanovski and Yanovski (2002) reported that “the current state of the treatment for obesity is similar to the state of the treatment of hypertension several decades ago” (p. 600).
ORObesity treatments are not being taken seriously and it resembles the way people viewed hypertension many years ago (Yanovski & Yanovski, 2002).
ORYanovski and Yanovski (2002) found that obesity treatments are not being taken seriously.
Reference ListEvery APA paper must include a list of references. References are listed in alphabetical order, using the author’s last name (if there are multiple authors, follow the order provided in the source). Each reference citation will include the author’s name, date of publication, title, publisher, and place of publication.
Eskritt, M. & McLeod, K. (2008). Children’s note taking as a mnemonic tool. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 31 (1), 77-85. doi:10.1016/jecp.2008.05.007.
More Citation Examples
APA Formatting Resources
- APA Style Blog and APA Quick Answers Formatting
- APA Formatting and Style Guide (OWL Purdue Univ.)
- APA Documentation Guide (UW-Madison)
- How to Write an APA Style Reference When Information is Missing (PDF) (American Psychological Association)
Citation & Writing Help
Vermont Tech students can get writing help through the Center for Academic Success. CCV students can get help with citation and paper writing through Tutor.com – On-Demand Tutoring (within your Canvas courses) or at a local Learning & Career Centers.