allows the reader to verify sources for themselves
boosts credibility and support for your arguments
gives credit to the author or source of the work
helps you avoid plagiarism
Information You Typically Need for Citations
publication name or publisher
volume, issue, and page number
When Citation Is Unnecessary
if the information is common or general knowledge (if a fact can be found in five or more sources, it is considered to be common knowledge)
if the information is completely your own idea
if the information is from an encyclopedia or reference work, it is assumed that you will move beyond those sources (after getting an overview of the topic) to find articles, books or other sources to cite in your work
Ways to Integrate Sources
Quotations consist of text that is identical to the original and uses a narrow segment of the source. Quotations must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.
Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.
Summarizing involves putting the main ideas into your own words, including only the main points. Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.
Academic papers are written using standard formatting rules, or style guides. There are different style guides for different academic disciplines. Two of the most commonly used style guides at CCV and Vermont Tech are the Modern Language Association (MLA) guide and the American Psychological Association (APA) guide. If you’re not sure which to use, check with your faculty member or your course syllabus.